20 May 2014

Lessons For The Daee In Inviting To Islaam

Compiled by Abuabdilmaalik Abdulhaqq Ibn Islaam and derived from Shaykh
Saalih Al Fawzaan’s class on Fathul Majeed 1st Rabiu Thaani 1435.

A delegation of people who were christians from the city of Najraan,Yemen came to make reconciliation with the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم. So he made between himself and them a peace treaty. However when they set out to return to their city, the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم wanted to send someone who would teach and invite them to Allah. He eventually chose the most knowledgeable of the companions in the affairs of Halaal and Haraam, Muaadh Ibn Jabal Al Ansaari رضي الله عنه So the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم sent him as a knowledgeable teacher, a judge and a caller to Allah the most high and he commanded him with an advice, he said in the authentic hadeeth collected by Imaam Bukhaari and others on the authority of Ibn Abaas رضي االه عنهما

“You are going to come into contact with a group from Ahlil Kitaab (the people of the book)”

When the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said ‘the people of the book’, he was referring to the Christians. They were called Ahlul Kitaab because Allah revealed to them the Torah and the Injeel just as He revealed to the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم the Quran. Therefore they were called Ahlul Kitaab for the mere fact of distinguishing them from the unlettered idolators who were not given any scriptures before the Quraan, and who weren’t given a messenger before the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم  Allah says:

هُوَ الَّذِي بَعَثَ فِي الْأُمِّيِّينَ رَسُولًا مِّنْهُمْ
“It is he (Allah) who has sent to the unlettered, a messenger from amongst themselves”
(Al Jumua, verse 2)

What is meant here is that Allah sent Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم to the unlettered, a people who could not read or write nor was any scripture sent to them, Allah says:

وَمَا آتَيْنَاهُم مِّن كُتُبٍ يَدْرُسُونَهَا وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَيْهِمْ قَبْلَكَ مِن نَّذِيرٍ
Whereas We gave them no Books that they could study nor sent to them any warner before you.
(Saba, verse 44)

So the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم sent Muaadh رضي الله عنه and he advised him to interact with them in a way that was appropriate or suitable. This is the way of the caller or the one that is going to rule over a people that he should understand their needs and conditions in order to interact with them in a way that is suitable. Therefore the way one addresses the people of the book is not the way he would address those who are unlettered, that is because the people of the book are people of knowledge. So the
prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said to Muaadh Ibn Jabal رضي الله عنه

“Indeed you are going to come upon the people of the book, so let it be the first thing you call them to, is the statement لا اله الا الله (There is no deity worthy of being worshipped besides Allah alone)” 

In this statement of the prophet صلى الله عليه سلم is a clarification concerning the way or Minhaj of calling to Islaam. Therefore the first thing the Daee (caller) establishes is calling to the correct Aqeedah (belief), which is calling to rectify or purify the belief system as was the call of all the messengers عليهم الصلاة و السلام. The first thing they called their people to, was to worship Allah alone and to leave off worshiping other than Allah. This is the correct way or Minhaj of calling to islaam. The caller should follow the way of the messengers, the revivers and those who helped in rectifying the people’s false beliefs. Therefore the first thing the callers begins with is rectifying his call, because this is the foundation which all of the other legislative islamic affairs are built upon, and without the correct aqeedah (belief), actions will be of no benefit and would not be accepted by Allah.

An extremely important benefit which should be considered is that the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said to Muaadh Ibn Jabal رضي الله عنه

“Indeed you are going to come upon Ahlul Kitaab”

because they were people of knowledge, meaning they were not unlettered like the other people and Allah revealed to them two previous scriptures, the Torah and the Injeel. However when the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم made this statement (Ahlul Kitaab) he was signifying that they were people who had knowledge of revelation. This directs us to a great and important principle, and that is that the Ulamah of falsehood, those who have mistakes and deviations are to be called back to Allah, to uprightness and to act upon their knowledge. The first thing they are called to, is understanding the statement لا اله الا الله (that there is none worthy of worship besides Allah).

So know that anywhere the statement لا اله الا الله enters, it is also accompanied by the testimony in the statement محمد الرسول الله (that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah).

In another narration of this hadeeth the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said to Muaadh رضي الله عنه

إلى ان يواحدوا الله”
“That you call them to single out Allah alone”

In this statement of the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم is a detailed explanation of the testimony لا اله الا الله and that it is not merely to just utter this statement upon the tongue. However it must be understood that لا اله الا الله (La ilaha ila Allah) means to single out Allah alone with His worship. So the scholars of falsehood merely utter this statement without adhering to it, without understanding its meaning, and without acting upon that which it comprises. Therefore the Shahaadah comprises singling out Allah alone with His exclusive right to be worshipped.

Then the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said to Muaadh Ibn Jabal رضي الله عنه

فان هم اطاعوك لذلك
“So if they obey you in this (Tawheed)”

In this statement of the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم is an evidence to establish that there are levels in giving Dawah. Therefore the caller has to establish his call in stages. He starts with the most important affairs first and then the next. He should not combine his call with the affairs of the dunyaa (worldy affairs) but rather he firstly begins by inviting the people to rectify their beliefs and their foundation, so if they answer his call, then he moves on to the next stage as the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said to

Muaadh Ibn Jabal رضي الله عنه

فاعلمهم أن الله إفترض عليهم خمس صلوات في كل يوم و ليلة
“then teach them that Allah has made incumbent upon them five prayers in a day and a night”

In this statement of the prophetصلى الله عليه و سلم  is an evidence to establish the importance of the five daily prayers after the Shahaadatayn (The two testimonies). It is the second from the five pillars of Islaam. When the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said the word ‘افترض’ it implies that Allah has made this action fard (binding, incumbent) and that it is a pillar from the pillars of Islaam after the two testimonies. Ahlul Sunnah mentions that whoever carries out the five compulsory prayers, then it is upon him to establish the naafilah (supererogatory) prayers. So the five daily prayers are compulsory and all the other prayers are supererogatory, and they are many, as is established in the authentic hadeeth of the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم collected by Imaam Bukhaari and reported by Talha Ibn Ubaidillah that a desert arab came to the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم and questioned him about the obligations of Islaam, so the
prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said to him:

خمسُ صلواتٍ في اليومِ والليلةِ
“that you carry out the five daily prayers in a day and a night”

So the desert arab asked is there anything else? the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم responded:

لا إلا أن تَطَوَّع
“no, except that you carry out the supererogatory prayers”

Therefore in this statement of the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم is an evidence to establish that after the five compulsory prayers, the supererogatory (nafl) prayers should be performed. So the legislative ruling in islaam for the supererogatory prayers is ‘Fard Kifaayah’ (sufficient obligation) this means, if some of the muslims establish these prayers then the burden of sin is lifted from the rest of the people. As for the five daily prayers, then this is an obligation upon every Muslim male and female, that is sane and who has reached the state of puberty.

Then the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said to Muaadh رضي الله عنه

فان هم أطاعوك لذلك
“So if they obey you in this”
فأعلمهم أن الله افترض عليهم صدقة تؤخذ من أغنيائهم فترد على فقرائهم
“then inform them that Allah has made incumbent upon them to pay Sadaqah (alms), which is taken from the wealthy and given to the poor”

So the word ‘Sadaqah’ refers to Zakah. In this statement of the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم is an evidence to establish the importance of Zakah. It is the third of the five pillars in Islaam and it is connected or linked to the word ‘Salah’ in the Qur’an and in the Sunnah of the prophet عليه الصلاة و السلام. So the
prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم in his statement here, used the word ‘Sadaqah’ that is because Zakah is sometimes called Zakah and sometimes it is called Sadaqah, as Allah informs in His book:

خذ من أموالهم صدقة تطهرهم وتزكيهم بها
Take Sadaqah (alms) from their wealth in order to purify them and sanctify them with it
(At Tawbah:103)

So this is Zakah which Allah called in this verse Sadaqah. It is incumbent to be payed by the rich Muslims. As for the poor, then the paying of Zakah is not incumbent upon them. Therefore whoever possesses the minimum amount of wealth or above which makes him fall under the one zakah is incumbent upon, then it is compulsory for him to pay the Zakah. However the one who does not possess the minimum amount and falls under, then he has the right to receive zakah, which is taken from the rich Muslims and given to the poor and needy as Allah informs:

والذين في أموالهم حق معلوم
And those in whose wealth there is a known right
للسائل والمحروم
For the beggar who asks, and for the unlucky who has lost his property and wealth, (and his means of living has been straitened
(Al-Maarij: 24-25)

So this is how the Zakah is distributed or the most important aspect of distributing the Zakah. It is given to eight types of people in the order Allah mentions in His book:

إنما الصدقات للفقراء والمساكين والعاملين عليها والمؤلفة قلوبهم وفي الرقاب والغارمين وفي سبيل الله وابن السبيل فريضة من الله والله عليم حكيم

As-Sadaqat (here it means Zakat) are only for the Fuqara’ (poor), and Al-Masakin (the needy) and those employed to collect (the funds); and for to attract the hearts of those who have been inclined (towards Islam); and to free the captives; and for those in debt; and for Allah’s Cause (i.e. for Mujahidun – those fighting in the holy wars), and for the wayfarer (a traveller who is cut off from everything); a duty imposed by Allah. And Allah is All-Knower, All-Wise.
(At Tawbah: 60)

So it is distributed in the following order:

  1. Al Fuqaraa (Poor)
  2. Al Masaakin (Needy)
  3. Al Aamileen (Those employed to collect the funds)
  4. Al Mualifah Quloobuhum (To attract the hearts of those inclined towards Islaam)
  5. Ar Riqaab (To free captives)
  6. Al Gaarimeen (Those in debt)
  7. Fi Sabilillah (Those fighting in Holy War)
  8. Ibn As Sabeel (A traveller who is cut off from means)

However those who have the most right to Zakah are the Fuqaraa (the poor) because Allah mentions them first in this verse from the eight types of people who can receive zakah. They are the first in line to receive this right.

Then the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said to Muaadh Ibn Jabal رضي الله عنه

تؤخذ من أغنيائهم فترد على فقرائهم
“it is taken from the rich and given to the poor”

So this statement of the prophet عليه الصلاة و السلام is an evidence to establish that the Zakah is meant for the Fuqaraa (the poor) of that place and it should not be transferred to another place (so long as there are poor people in need present) or in a circumstance which the Shareeah permits (Islamic Legislation). So the Zakah is given to the poor of that city so long as the wealth is present because they have the most right of receiving it.

Then the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said to Muaadh Ibn Jabal رضي الله عنه

فان هم اطاعوا لك بذلك فاياك و كرائم أموالهم

so if it is they obey you in this affair, then upon you is to be warned and honorable with their wealth

Then the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم gave Muaadh Ibn Jabal an advice when he said to him:

واتق دعوة المظلوم
“and fear the supplication of the oppressed”

Fear the supplication of the oppressed even if it is from the people of the book or the disbelievers. It is not permissible to oppress in any circumstance because Allah commands us with justice when he said:

ولا يجرمنكم شنآن قوم على ألا تعدلوا اعدلوا هو أقرب للتقوى
And let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just because that is nearer to piety
(Al Maaidah: 8)

So fear the supplication or call of the oppressed in other words be warned about this affair because the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said:

فإنه ليس بينه و بين الله حجاب
because between the oppressed and Allah there is no barriers

Allah accepts the supplication of the one who is oppressed, even if he is a disbeliever. So beware of oppressing, beware of oppressing the people. A muslim stays away from oppression because Allah answers the call of the oppressed and He hastens to punish the oppressor.

May Allah bring benefit to the believers through this article and may He forgive me for any shortcomings.

Compiled and Translated by
Abuabdilmaalik Abdulhaqq Ibn Islaam.

Prayer 5 Arabic // Shaykh Saalih Al Luhaidaan - Manners Of Prayer 5
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  1. Prayer 5 Arabic // Shaykh Saalih Al Luhaidaan - Manners Of Prayer 5
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  3. Prayer 5 Q&A 1 // Shaykh Saalih Al Luhaidaan - Manners Of Prayer 5
  4. Prayer 5 Q&A 2 // Shaykh Saalih Al Luhaidaan - Manners Of Prayer 5

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