After the resurrection, they shall be reckoned and rewarded for their actions. The proof is the statement of The Most High:
وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ لِيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاءُوا بِمَا عَمِلُوا وَيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا بِالْحُسْنَى
“And to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth – that He may recompense those who do evil with the penalty of what they have done (i.e. punish them in Hell) and recompense those who do good with the best reward.” (An-Najm [53:31)])
From that which will take place on the Day of Standing/Judgement is the reckoning and the scales. The reckoning bears the meaning of debating with the people of disobedience. Therefore, the Muslims are of different categories on the day of standing:
1st category: From them are those who will not be reckoned. They will enter paradise without reckoning or punishment; as is within the Hadith regarding the seventy thousand people who shall enter paradise without any reckoning or punishment.
The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,
“The people were displayed in front of me and I saw one prophet passing by with a large group of his followers, and another prophet passing by with only a small group of people, and another prophet passing by with only ten (persons), and another prophet passing by with only five (persons), and another prophet passed by alone. And then I looked and saw a large multitude of people, so I asked Gabriel, “Are these people my followers?’ He said, ‘No, but look towards the horizon.‘ I looked and saw a very large multitude of people. Gabriel said. ‘Those are your followers, and those are seventy thousand (persons) in front of them who will neither have any reckoning of their accounts nor will receive any punishment.’ I asked, ‘Why?’ He said, ‘For they used not to treat themselves with branding (cauterization) nor with Ruqya (get oneself treated by the recitation of some Verses of the Qur’an) and not to see evil omen in things, and they used to put their trust (only) in their Lord.” On hearing that, ‘Ukasha bin Mihsan got up and said (to the Prophet), “Invoke Allah to make me one of them.” The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said, “O Allah, make him one of them.” Then another man got up and said (to the Prophet), “Invoke Allah to make me one of them.” The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said, ‘Ukasha has preceded you.” (Narrated by Ibn `Abbas. Sahih Bukhari)
2nd Category: From the people are those who shall have an easy reckoning; and it refers to the presentation of their books only. They will not be reckoned by way of debate, they are only reckoned by way of the presentation of their books only. This also is from the felicities. The Most High has stated:
وَيَنقَلِبُ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ مَسْرُورًا فَسَوْفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابًا يَسِيرًا
“Then, as for him who will be given his Record in his right hand, he surely will receive an easy reckoning, And will return to his family in joy!” (Al-Inshiqaq [84:7-9])
3rd Category: These are those who will be reckoned by way of debate and they will be in danger due to the statement of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم:
“Whoever is debated as it relates to the reckoning shall be punished” (Narrated by ‘A’isha. Sahih Bukhari & Muslim)
The scholars have differed regarding the disbelievers as to whether they will be reckoned or not. Some of the scholars mention that the disbelievers will not be reckoned because they have no good deeds—and thus will be only be taken to the fire. This is because they do not have any good. Other scholars mention that the disbelievers will be reckoned with a reckoning of affirmation—meaning as it relates to their actions, their disbelief, and their atheism. Then they shall be taken to the fire.
The scale relates to the tool by which the actions of the servants are weighed. The good deeds will be placed in one hand of the scale and the evil deeds will be placed in the other hand of the scale.
The Most High has stated:
وَمَنْ خَفَّتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ فِي جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدُونَ فَمَن ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ
“Then, those whose scales of good deeds are heavy—these, they are the successful. And those who scales of good deeds are light, they are those who lose their own selves, in Hell will they abide.” (Al-Mu’minun [23:102-103])
So if the evil deeds are heavy then the individual will be in the state of loss. And if the good deeds are heavy then the individual will be successful. This scale is the scale of the actions.
Likewise, he who is given his book in his right hand, then his reckoning will be light; and he who is given his book in his left hand, then his reckoning will be difficult and he will see great terrors and perils.
He who reflects upon the evils on the Day of Standing, the reckoning, and the gathering—then these are affairs which are terrifying if we think about it.
Taken from The Explanation of The Three Fundamental Principles (Al-Usool-uth-Thalaathah) by Shaykh Saalih Al-Fawzaan (Translated by Aboo Moosa Raha ibn Donald Batts)